Monthly Archives: June 2013

Rome’s Fifth Century Grain Supply

I took a break from reading about Christianity to catch up on some things that have been laying around here a while and came across several good articles in last fall’s issue of the Journal of Late Antiquity. Among these is an analysis by Jason Linn of the city of Rome’s grain supply between the signing of a treaty between Rome and the Vandals in 442 and the resumption of hostilities in 455 after Valentinian III’s death.

Genseric_sacking_Rome_45519th century painting of Geiseric’s sack of Rome in 455 by Karl Briullov. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

For background, Roman cities were something of an anomaly, or at least appear that way to those of us who are interested in the Middle Ages. The Medieval city was relatively modest in size through most of the period and its population appears to have been largely supported by local agricultural production. A Medieval city with a population of 10,000 was large, one with a population of 50,000 was huge, and possibly unknown in Western Europe before about the millennium. In contrast, the Roman Empire possessed several cities with populations of over 100,000 and Rome, Alexandria(probably), and – later – Constantinople over 500,000 and, in the case of Rome at least, possibly approaching a million. These cities could not have been supported by local agricultural production, except for Alexandria due to Egypt’s fertility, but must have been part of more extensive trade networks. 1

I’ve been interested in discussions of trade networks for several reasons. Among these are as indicators of economic wealth, particularly among elites, how involved medieval people were in the wider world compared with their immediate environment, and what types (and the extent) of networks existed. In the case of Roman cities, one purpose for these networks was to provide a more basic need; to feed the population.

Some of the theories that have been proposed include that with the loss of Roman North Africa, the city also lost the annona which was basically a taxation paid in kind by agricultural areas. Instead Rome had to pay the Vandals for its grain. A related theory is that this supply was less reliable than the taxation system and resulted in food shortages in the city. Linn sets out to disprove both of these concepts.

Linn believes that the treaty of 442 was not some sort of watershed as it has often been viewed. While he believes the grain supply from North Africa did decrease, the western empire possessed enough agricultural land to make up this shortage.(298-9) He discusses this using a combination of reasoned argument, evidence related to grain production, and coinage. There are multiple sub-arguments within his overriding thesis and I’ll try to touch on some of these as I go along.

He opens by discussing the provisions of the treaty. The treaty itself does not survive, just reports of it from various sources. Without going into too much detail, Linn believes that this treaty was signed from a relative position of Roman strength. He accepts Procopius’ report that one of the terms of the treaty involved Geiseric handing over his son, Huneric, as hostage, something which would be doubtful if the Vandals were completely dictating the terms.(301) 2

The terms of the treaty have been debated with some believing that the grain shipments from North Africa represent an economic transaction and that Rome paid for what it received. Linn believes this is not supportable and that the grain was sent to Rome free of charge. He discusses Roman coin finds in North Africa and says, “Hardly any Roman coins from the mid-fifth century have been found in Carthage.”(309) Linn believes that this indicates that Geiseric possessed the ability to compel North African farmers to produce grain for Rome without financial return, possibly continuing a taxation in kind system. 3

Linn is careful to note that it is almost certain that less grain was sent to Rome than had been prior to the Vandal conquest.(306-309) Procopius indicates that much of the land allocated to Geiseric’s Vandal subjects was granted tax-free. Some land went out of production. Meanwhile, the local population level did not change substantially so a higher proportion of grain would have been required to meet local needs.

While the grain supply from North Africa would have been reduced, Linn believes that local regions such as Sicily, parts of Gaul, and Italy would have been able to make up the difference.(315-6) He also spends a fair amount of time discussing how by this time Rome had fewer mouths to feed.(317-21) I won’t go into detail on this but his two main points are that the size of the standing army was radically reduced by this time and that the population of Rome was, at most, about 500,000, substantially reduced from its height. In addition, much of the army that remained received their pay in coinage rather than in grain. 4

One additional piece of evidence which I think deserves mention is that, based on contemporary sources, it appears that Rome had enough grain to feed its population during the period. Between 442 and 455 there is evidence for a single famine, from 450-2, and this affected all of Italy, not just Rome, indicating a broader event, either due to weather or some other factor, and not a failure of the annona payment.

I enjoyed this article. Linn uses a lot of evidence, enough for you to see how he arrives at his conclusions. I have some questions about a couple of those (see footnote 4, below) but based on the evidence he provides I think his overall conclusions are on fairly solid ground; Rome was adequately fed between 442-455, grain continued to arrive from North Africa, and this was along the lines of a free payment, not something Rome had to buy.

1 Amazingly, I haven’t read anything which specifically discusses Late Ancient/Late Antique population in detail. The book I’ve seen most frequently referenced is Liebeschuetz, J.H.W.G., The Decline and Fall of the Roman City. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2001). ISBN: 978-0-19815-247-7.

2 Other than a brief comment Linn does not discuss the possibility that this arrangement may have been something Geiseric wanted as a precursor to his son’s possible marriage to Valentinian III’s daughter and to become, possibly, Emperor through marriage. Without some sort of textual evidence this is impossible to prove but Geiseric showed himself, throughout his career, to be an able ruler who was able to take a long-term view. I can hypothesize him thinking something along the lines of, If my son marries Eudoxia there’s a good chance he could become Emperor. It would be a good thing if he spent a few years in Rome so if and when the time comes, he’ll have learned the things he needs to so he can handle the job. I could see him thinking along the same lines when it came to making sure the grain got through – that Rome would be more willing to accept a Vandal Emperor if they couldn’t blame his father for not feeding Rome, and that by continuing the custom of free grain from North Africa, Geiseric and Huneric could demonstrate their worthiness to be rulers of the Western Empire if the opportunity arose. There’s also the concept that if Rome continued to receive grain, it would be less motivated to cross the Mediterranean and try to get North Africa back as it tried (and failed) to do in 460 and 468. As you can see from this lengthy note, I can come up with a bunch of reasons why a treaty which included free grain shipments and a “hostage” may have been exactly what Geiseric wanted. Also, I think it’s important to note that many scholars believe Huneric was sent as a hostage in 435, not 442. Linn outlines his reasons for disagreeing with them on page 300.

3 Every time I read more about North Africa in the fifth century I become a little more impressed with Geiseric. He certainly is viewed badly by contemporary sources but even these criticisms point to his ability as a ruler. Even his repression of Orthodox Catholicism in favor of Arianism, despite Victor of Vita’s account, points to an ability to do so without negatively impacting much beyond the type of service conducted at churches. He had the foresight to begin building a fleet of ships well in advance of his crossing into Africa and 25 years later the Vandals, who had just about zero experience with the sea prior to reaching North Africa, were able to assemble a fleet and sack Rome. Under his rule the Vandals went from a nothing grouping to ruling one of the wealthiest areas of the Empire and, evidently, without causing massive local disruptions, at least long-term (other than to Orthodox Christianity).

4 To be honest, Linn’s use of this last piece of evidence puzzles me. Even if the army was paid in cash rather than grain they still would have had to eat, resulting in little or no net change in total grain requirements. This and his lack of emphasis on the possibility that Huneric may have been sent to the Roman court because Geiseric wanted it that way are the two pieces of this article I have my strongest doubts about.

Linn, Jason, “The Roman Grain Supply, 442-455,” Journal of Late Antiquity 5.2 (2013), 298-321.

Victor of Vita, Victor of Vita: History of the Vandal Persecution, John Moorhead, ed. and trans. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press (1992). ISBN: 978-0-85323-1271-1.


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Administrative: Links Added

You’d think I wouldn’t have waited a year-and-a-half after moving this blog to do this but I’ve added a bunch of Medieval (and some Ancient) Links to the sidebar. For the most part I’ve stuck with links to online collections of source documents and images. I could add a mouse-over description and additional categories but this will be it for now. I seem to have a lot of links to maps. If anyone sees something important I’m missing, let me know. I have many more links bookmarked but decided to stick with the source collections for the most part. At some point I think a separate links page would be more useful complete with categories and brief descriptions but that would take more time than I have at the moment.

I’m finishing up reading Irenaeus. One of the interesting things is that he seems to have written what could be considered a summary of Christian thought and belief to the end of the 2nd century. I’d like to post a summary of this but I’m not sure I’ll be able to get that down to 2,000 words or less. Maybe I’ll figure it out, maybe I’ll divide it into categories and this statement is largely to put pressure on myself to produce something.

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Posted by on June 9, 2013 in Blogology, Resources


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Versatile Blogger Nominations


I’ve received these occasionally and generally ignore them but I’ll take this one for two reasons. First is that it doesn’t ask you to link back to a commercial site complete with cookies but all I need to do is post the image. Second, while it’s a chain letter, unlike some of the Facebook or e-mail messages that pop up, it’s harmless and hopefully only has the consequence of increasing traffic to other blogs. I guess I’ll add a third reason; because Michelle Ziegler from Heavenfield nominated me – thanks Michelle!

I’ve often been told that without rules life is chaos. While I’m not sure how valid that statement is, there are rules for accepting this nomination. These are:

  1. Display the logo
  2. Thank and link back to your nominator.
  3. State seven things about yourself.
  4. Nominate 15 other bloggers.
  5. Link back to a specific blog post on each blog so the blogger is notified.

I try not to talk a lot about me. Though I’ve been told that all writing is, at its core, about the author – or is that a guideline just for fiction? I’m going to stay away from what’s on my About this Blog page. If you think this blog looks interesting, you’ll likely get there eventually.

  1. While I have no history degree or training, while in college I found that I had an affinity towards the social sciences, particularly sociology and anthropology. I have always been fascinated by what makes people be, er, people and why we behave the way we do, particularly in groups. Besides my frustrated ambitions to write fantasy, I think this is why I enjoy history. It’s also why you’ll find very little here about things like how a battle was fought or period clothing. I like the social evolution end of things and while the two previously mentioned examples may be related to social aspects (the French at Agincourt anyone?) these aren’t the topics I tend to gravitate to.
  2. Before I went back for my graduate degree I trained horses professionally for about 7 years. I also did a little rodeo.
  3. This is for those new to this blog. I’m a book fiend. My friends are completely baffled by this. There are jokes out there about women and shoes – well, I don’t know how much truth there is in them but you could sure apply them to me and books.
  4. I’ve never been overseas. My international experiences have been limited to Canada, Mexico, and Honduras(an International Ag Project in college). I absolutely expect that the first year after I retire I’ll make the IMC at Leeds. And it’s likely that this will be part of a month or more in Europe.
  5. In my real job I do a fair amount of GIS work. I’ve idly thought that after I retire I could farm myself out to Independent Scholars to help them with the spatial display of information (most folks associated with colleges likely have someone on staff to help them).
  6. I work for a University but have no teaching or research appointment. My appointment is 100% Extension. The Extension system in the US is located(organizationally) in Agriculture Schools at what are known as Land-Grant Universities. I’m not even going to try to explain it here.
  7. Recently I’ve been doing a lot of work on Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Response, specifically in Agrosecurity and in a couple of specialties within that.

Now I have to come up with 15 blogs to nominate. I think I’m going to just nominate blogs which I consider interesting and which have been fairly active, without worrying about whether they’ll pass it along. Five of the blogs I’d normally consider have been nominated by Michelle.

  1. Steve Muhlberger of Nipissing University has Muhlberger’s World History Steve is a medieval history professor currently working on various aspects of chivalry along with high and late medieval warfare. When I think of a versatile blogger though, he is the first person who comes to mind as he blogs about current events and social issues as much as he does about history.
  2. Magistra et Mater is a historian in Britain (since she’s in Britain should I type “an historian”?) who has focused her research on studies of early medieval masculinity. She’s not exactly pseudonymous but enough so that I’ll not provide information on her latest book which looks very interesting – pretty sure I’ll be picking up a copy once I start reading about that period.
  3. Not my period but Kathleen Neal is an Australian medievalist who has a great blog, In Thirteenth Century England. The focus of her blog’s pretty self-explanatory but occasionally she ventures into other areas. The post I linked to immediately sent me scrambling to Google to see what kinds of autocompletes I could come up with.
  4. I love Bill Caraher’s The Archaeology of the Mediterranean World blog. He’s an archaeologist from the University of North Dakota and includes a ton of information, including some excellent book reviews.
  5. I recently discovered theculturegirl. I always take a look at the blogs of people who follow me and if I like them, as I did this one, I follow them myself. The author’s a PhD candidate in Medieval History.
  6. I mentioned The Lost Fort in my last post. In addition to writing a lot about (mostly) Medieval Germany (more properly the HRE and surrounding areas) she always includes great pictures.
  7. Viqueen is a very well respected blogger who teaches and does research on the Viking Age and in Old Norse language and literature. Her blog is Norse and Viking Ramblings.
  8. Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic is a blog written by folks from the University of Cambridge.
  9. Another Archaeology blog is Ancient Bodies, Ancient Lives authored by a University of California at Berkely Anthropology Professor.
  10. Chris Armstrong is a Professor of Church History at Bethel Seminary. He has a very interesting blog, Grateful to the Dead. The post I’ve linked to includes the paper he gave this year at Kalamazoo.
  11. I know nothing about the author (this is another blog I found because the author started following mine) but I like Antiquarian’s Attic.
  12. Christian Opitz writes L’Historien Errant. Some very interesting art history posts.
  13. From the Garden to the City is written by a Masters Degree student studying Late Roman History. Our interests mesh and I like this one a lot.
  14. Things Medieval is a group blog whose authors are, mostly, graduate students in history.

I thought I was going to get to 15 but, except for the blogs Michelle mentioned in her post none of the others I wanted to nominate have posted within several months. Guess I’ll be one short.


Posted by on June 3, 2013 in Blogology, Other Blogs


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